The Civil War in England from 1642 until 1652 stemming from a growing enmity between King and Parliament, led to the execution of King Charles I in 1649. The standard title for all monarchs from Æthelstan until the time of King John was Rex Anglorum ("King of the English"). Since that time, except for King Edward III, the eldest sons of all English monarchs have borne this title. George V was king of England from 1910 to 1936. Nonetheless, Philip was to co-reign with his wife.. Historian Simon Keynes states, for example, that "Offa was driven by a lust for power, not a vision of English unity; and what he left was a reputation, not a legacy. He became King of England in 1327 at the age of 14, after the deposition of his father King Edward II and retained the position until his death. Various families (all interrelated) have given England rulers since that time, including the houses of Anjou, Lancaster, York, Tudor, Stuart, Hanover, and Windsor. Edmund Tudor's son became king as Henry VII after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, winning the Wars of the Roses. Seven sub-kingdoms - Essex, Kent, Sussex, Wessex, Mercia, East Anglia and Northumberland - had been formed by the newcomers, and their fortunes rose and fell often with the skill and determination of their rulers. Monck took control of the country in December 1659, and after almost a year of anarchy, the monarchy was formally restored when Charles II returned from France to accept the throne of England. The Houses of Lancaster and York are cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet. Charles I was crowned on 2 February 1626. The Norman Kings of England in the Middle Ages The Kings of England in the Middle Ages started with the Norman Invasion. When the House of Lancaster fell from power, the Tudors followed. Henry named his eldest daughter, Matilda (Countess of Anjou by her second marriage to Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, as well as widow of her first husband, Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor), as his heir. Richard II 1377-1399 Weak-willed "poet-king." After reigning for approximately 9 weeks, Edgar Atheling submitted to William the Conqueror, who had gained control of the area to the south and immediate west of London. So who was the real King Arthur? (See family tree.). This is 84% of the population of the UK.  The title "King of the English" or Rex Anglorum in Latin, was first used to describe Æthelstan in one of his charters in 928. After the Monarchy was restored, England came under the rule of Charles II, whose reign was relatively peaceful domestically, given the tumultuous time of the Interregnum years. The direct, eldest male line from Henry II includes monarchs commonly grouped together as the House of Plantagenet, which was the name given to the dynasty after the loss of most of their continental possessions, while cadet branches of this line became known as the House of Lancaster and the House of York during the War of the Roses. However he suffered military defeat at the hands of the English fleet. England is a part of, but not the same as, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. [xvii], This article is about English monarchs until 1707. As the new King of England could not read English, it was ordered that a note of all matters of state should be made in Latin or Spanish. The first king of England is generally said to be Egbert, who united the realms of Wessex, … Tudor was the son of Welsh courtier Owain Tudur (anglicised to Owen Tudor) and Catherine of Valois, the widow of the Lancastrian King Henry V. Edmund Tudor and his siblings were either illegitimate, or the product of a secret marriage, and owed their fortunes to the goodwill of their legitimate half-brother King Henry VI. The acts joined the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland (previously separate sovereign states, with separate legislatures but with the same monarch) into the Kingdom of Great Britain.. Æthelred was forced to go into exile in mid-1013, following Danish attacks, but was invited back following Sweyn Forkbeard's death in 1014. England is a country in Europe.It is a country with over sixty cities in it. The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) saw the throne pass back and forth between the rival houses of Lancaster and York. An Act of Parliament gave him the title of king and stated that he "shall aid her Highness … in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions" (although elsewhere the Act stated that Mary was to be "sole queen"). 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